I will never say what I have to say
I just want to leave things unspoken
I should never chase what I’ve given up
and waste my time on the uncertain
I should never dwell on what could have been
should not tell you what you mean to me
I should never cling to what never was
and dream about what we’ll never be
You think you know me better
Much better than I do
You think that you are perfect
That I should be like you
Go walk a mile in my shoes
Walk a mile down the street
A girl like me cannot choose
The troubles that I meet
Wasn’t my fault
God made a mistake
But by default
I’m the one to take
All the blame
And all the stares
Life is cruel
It is unfair
To a girl like me
Le concept de développement durable est probablement étranger à la société et à la politique des Philippines. « Out with the old, in with the new » : voilà le principe qui est présent dans tous les secteurs de la société. Lorsque cela paraît acceptable, bien peu de politiques et de programmes de développement survivent au gouvernement qui les a introduits. Un facteur sociologique contribue aussi à faire du développement durable un véritable défi : c’est le concept de ningas kugon, qui fait partie intégrante de la culture et des valeurs philippines. Il s’agit de la tendance qu’ont les philippins à commencer quelque chose avec enthousiasme, pour ensuite échouer à le mener à terme, quelle qu’en soit la raison. Un autre facteur est une certaine imprévoyance, ou peut-être un manque d’intérêt de notre population pour tout ce qui peut lui sembler être un idéal élitiste. Les dirigeants politiques ne semblent guère faire preuve de beaucoup plus d’empressement : l’opinion les soupçonne, à tort ou à raison, de se soucier bien plus de leur enrichissement personnel à court terme que de proposer un programme durable pour alléger les conditions de vie des secteurs les plus pauvres de la société.
Comme le pays est encore en voie de développement, il n’est pas surprenant que l’homme de la rue soit habitué aux solutions à court terme. Les projets à long terme sont trop « élitistes » et abstraits pour susciter leur intérêt. Les politiciens qui proposent une feuille de route « élitiste » sont rarement élus à une charge publique. Ce manque de soutien de la population complique la tâche de préparer des politiques et des programmes durables. Ce ne sont que quelques-uns des facteurs sociologiques et politiques qui influencent, voire déterminent la durée de vie des programmes de développement aux Philippines. Tout ceci nous amène à nous demander comment nous pouvons œuvrer à un développement durable dans un pays où la politique est essentiellement une course à la popularité, un pays dont la population se soucie plus de solutions tangibles mais à court terme.
by Sam Cook a former student
From the 1960s onwards, feminist sociologists highlighted the following gender inequalities in society. Feminists argue that the education system is just a primary preparation for leading into the future work force. They argue the gender differences in subject choice in schools come is evidence of a patriarchal society. Colley (1998) reviewed this idea and found that despite all the social changes in recent decades, traditional definitions of masculinity and femininity were still widespread as evident below.
Gender and education – Feminist perspectives focus on gender inequalities in society. Feminist research has revealed the extent of male domination and the ways in which male supremacy has been maintained. From a feminist viewpoint, one of the main roles of education has been to maintain gender inequality.
Gendered language – reflecting wider society, school textbooks (and teachers) tend to use gendered language – ‘he’, ‘him’, ‘his’, ‘man’…
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Marxist perspective by Sam Cook a former student
Marx’s position about the ruling class was they have the power to control the working classes not with force but with ideas. These ideas justify their dominant position and conceal the true source of their power along with their exploitation of the subject class. Remember: Marxism is a belief that capitalism allows the owners of capital (the ruling-class or bosses) to exploit the workers (employees) and this causes conflict between the two classes (known as social-class conflict).
In Marx’s view this ruling class ideology is far more effective in controlling the subject classes than physical force, as it is hidden from the consciousness of the subject class – this is known as ‘false consciousness’. One example Marxists might use is the role of meritocracy in education to control the working classes by getting the working classes used to being rewarded for…
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What is the hidden curriculum? – as well as the formal curriculum (maths, English, PE etc) schools also teach norms and values to their students – this is known as the hidden curriculum.
Examples of norms and values we’re taught are being punctual to lessons, dressing smartly in school uniform, working hard to achieve your best and receiving rewards for those efforts . It’s called the hidden curriculum because you don’t have formal timetabled lessons on dressing smartly, instead your teachers constantly remind you to be punctual or ‘tuck your shirt in’. You also learn respect for authority and following instructions
It is important to recognise that Functionalists appreciate the virtues of the hidden curriculum as being good at secondary socialising students to:
- look smart via the school uniform
- punctuality through disciplining people who are late
- shows children how to follow instructions
- as well how to read and follow a…
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functionalist perspective by Sam Cook a former student
In same way the Family module has competing perspectives so too does the education unit.
The first perspective we’ll look at is the functionalistperspective. As you will remember functionalists look at the function or role of an institution in society in keeping the social body ‘functioning’ (working) properly. Functionalists usually begin their sociological analysis with the following questions:
- How does education contribute to the maintenance and wellbeing of society?
- What are the relationships between education and other parts of the social system?
Emile Durkheim (functionalist) – writing over 100 years ago that one of the main functions of education is to bind members of society together – this creates social unity and solidarity. Therefore like the family, education is seen as functional prerequisite because it passes on the culture of a society particularly its core values.
Talcott Parsons (a functionalist)
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The effects of being placed in lower bands/streams was researched by Paul Lacey (1970) in his study of Hightown Grammar School which sowed how streaming can lead to the formation of anti-school subcultures. Paul Willis (1997) also researched the effects of streaming/banding in his book ‘Learning to Labour’.
Paul Willis’ study is still relevant today as there’s a persistence of counter school cultures in contemporary societies despite the ‘drying-up’ of manual labouring jobs. You only have to think of the number of NEETS and the increasing number of white working-class males failing school.
Paul Willis’ ‘Learning to Labour’ is a significant study for two reasons. Firstly his research followed a group of lads in the 1970s that rejected school and all its values and instead focused on leaving school as soon as they could.
In the meantime while they did attend school they spent most of their time trying to…
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